Air purifiers are apparatuses that purify indoor air by removing dust, odors, and smoke (including tobacco smoke), engaging in bactericidal purification, and even performing air ionization. The utilization of air purifiers can be deemed the most efficacious and logical approach to combatting contaminated air in offices and residences.
Air purifiers, in conjunction with other types of climatic apparatuses, enable the creation of the most favorable and comfortable living conditions for individuals: they eliminate dust, noxious substances, as well as odors, viruses, and microorganisms from indoor air.
The primary characteristic of air purifiers is their air capacity (ranging from tens to thousands of cubic meters per hour). This parameter establishes the volume of air processed within a single hour. To operate effectively in a room, the air purifier must ensure a minimum of two to three air exchanges per hour. Consequently, depending on their capacity, air purifiers find application within modest spaces like kitchens or serve expansive halls, restaurants, and bars. It is imperative to equip rooms devoid of ventilation and afflicted by significant air pollution, as well as areas with a high concentration of smokers, with air purifiers.
There exist robust variants of air purifiers designed for installation on floors, walls, or ceilings.
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How is an air purifier constructed?
Air purifiers comprise a fan, diverse filters, and an ionizer, all ingeniously united within a singular enclosure.
The air purification system is conferred by: an air filtration unit (capturing coarse particulate matter); an activated carbon filtration unit (sterilizing the air, purifying smoke and fragrances); an electrostatic filtration unit (ensnaring fine particulate matter); and an ionizer (imbuing the air with negative ions).
The operational principle of conventional air purifiers revolves around the utilization of a customary filtration mechanism, culminating in the complete deposition of pollutants upon specialized filters. Such purifiers are typically equipped with mechanical, electrostatic, and charcoal filters, as well as HEPA filters (a variant of ‘high-efficiency particle retention’). Mechanical filters serve the purpose of entrapping sizable dust particles, while the remaining filters eliminate the most minuscule particles from the ambient air.
Adsorption air purifiers
Adsorption carbon filters ensnare nearly all pernicious airborne impurities with a molecular weight exceeding 40 atomic units. Adsorption filters find application in BONECO and SHARP apparatuses, as well as select domestic air purification systems.
Nonetheless, the study and application of absorption carbon filters have revealed that carbon exhibits limited adsorption capabilities towards lighter compounds, encompassing commonplace urban air pollutants such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, and formaldehyde. Consequently, air purifiers employing charcoal filters have proven inadequate in purifying urban air from its primary contaminants. Furthermore, as toxins and particulates accumulate, the apparatus itself metamorphoses into a source of contamination and, regrettably, a breeding ground for bacteria if the filter is not replaced in a timely manner. In urban settings, it is recommended to substitute the filter every 3–4 months.
The modus operandi of this variety of air purifiers is predicated upon the phenomenon whereby the ionized air within the contraption imparts an electric charge upon dust particles, causing them to precipitate onto the earthed plate nestled within the apparatus. These air purifiers efficaciously eliminate dust and soot from the ambient air, while regrettably failing to capture pernicious pollutants such as carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, formaldehyde, and other detrimental organic compounds that pervade domestic and industrial environments. Furthermore, ionization purifiers themselves engender nitrogen oxides and ozone gas, the latter being fivefold more toxic than carbon monoxide. The genesis of ozone can be ascribed to the application of several thousand volts of electrical potential within the ionization chamber of the air purifier.
This type of filter finds implementation in a multitude of air purifier models. Device manufacturers vouch for the absence of ozone generation during operation.
Air ionizers also encompass the renowned Chizhevsky chandelier. Its distinction from the aforementioned ionization filter resides in the utilization of the room’s ceiling, floor, and walls as the precipitating surfaces within the air purification system. It is upon these surfaces that room dust hastens and firmly adheres, rendering its removal a formidable task.
Photocatalytic air purifiers
Filters of this kind epitomize a novelty within the realm of air purification.
The crux of this method of air cleansing lies in the decomposition and oxidation of pernicious impurities upon the surface of the photocatalyst, induced by ultraviolet radiation. These reactions occur at ambient temperature, wherein organic pollutants are not amassed but instead eradicated into harmless constituents (water and carbon dioxide). Photocatalytic oxidation equally proves formidable against toxins, viruses, and bacteria. The majority of odors emanate from organic compounds, which are likewise wholly disintegrated by the purifier, thus vanishing into thin air.
Undoubtedly, this method stands as the utmost efficacious and economical means of molecular air purification in the twenty-first century, as opined by scientists.
Presently, purifiers of this type boast limited representation in the market.
The esteemed Japanese conglomerate, DAIKIN, presents the Daikin ACEF3AVI-C(H) purifier, replete with three filters: a mechanical filter to purify the air from coarse particulate matter, an ionization filter to capture fine particles, and a photocatalytic filter to decompose molecular impurities. The apparatus autonomously responds to the presence of tobacco smoke, activating and operating until the air within the room is pristine. It can be remotely controlled via a remote, featuring a timer and a turbo mode.
Another noteworthy advantage of the DAIKIN photocatalytic purifier over other models lies in its low noise emissions (in night mode, it does not surpass 18 dB, falling beneath the auditory threshold of the human ear).
Air purifiers – humidifiers
Manufacturers of air conditioning apparatuses also proffer composite contrivances that not only purify the air but also imbue it with moisture. When it comes to compatibility, the optimal fusion entails an adsorption air purifier coupled with cold steam humidification. Within the humidifier, arid and tainted air traverses an arrangement of dust and adsorption filters (comprising activated carbon), subsequently undergoing humidification before being propelled outward by a fan.
An endeavor to employ water as a filtration medium was undertaken by the esteemed German firm, VENTA. The VENTA technology is truly exceptional, for it amalgamates air purification with concurrent humidification via the mechanism of frigid evaporation, obviating the necessity for removable filters.
Leading purifier manufacturers encompass renowned entities like DAIKIN (Japan) and PLASTON (Switzerland). Among the most sought-after purifier models in recent years are the Siesta and Air-O-Swiss models.